Caries is the most common dental disease. Cariogenic bacteria live in the oral cavity. They form a sticky layer on the surface of the teeth called plaque. The bacteria in the plaque use the carbohydrates from the food to produce acids that break down the mineral structure of the teeth – demineralization occurs. However, saliva cleanses food debris from the oral cavity, neutralizes the acids produced by the bacteria in the plaque, and supplies the teeth with calcium, phosphates, and fluoride to help remineralize.
Caries develops when demineralization exceeds remineralization for a long period
Dental caries is caused by damage and disruption of the hard dental tissues by the action of acids in the oral cavity, which is most often formed during the decomposition of food residues by bacteria that normally live in a person’s mouth. It usually begins to develop as a spot and deepens as a hole gradually forms. In the initial stages, it is characterized by pain, mostly from jam, and later there may be pain from cold and when eating. Failure to treat caries can lead to damage to the dental pulp or even to tooth loss.